Instructional Graphics / Educational Psychology
Mantra's and Images can both motivate teachers and change how they teach. Below is a selection of media that directly influences my teaching and planning of lessons.
eXPLICIT MODELING AND GRADUAL RELEASE Of Responsibility - Strategic reading
There is a large focus currently on "discovery learning" and although this method is engaging and effective in the correct application, it can often leave students in want of explicit instruction.
The premise behind Explicit Modeling and Gradual Release of Responsibility is to explicitly teach students how to do something, for example how to use excel to create a graph. Once it has been demonstrated then the teacher then progresses to the next step of Gradual Release whereby the teacher asks the student to provide the instruction. Then in step three, the students are the creators with direct instruction from the teacher and then in the final step the students are fully automated and reach a state of self-actualisation.
The model model - Atkinson & shiffrin 1968
The model model lies at the heart of Educational Psychology. Since its inception in 1968 it has been altered by several different academics however the main structure has remained the same. The model model looks at the transfer of information from the sensory memory, (which is stimulus that you are consciously aware of) to the short-term memory, (stimulus that you are actively paying attention to and assigning cognitive resources to engage with), to the long-term memory (which is where all deep learning and information retention takes place).
Cognitive load theory - John sweller
Their are three types of cognitive load that exists anytime a person is engaging with learning.
The first type of cognitive load is intrinsic cognitive load. This is the cognitive load that is inherent to material being taught. This type of cognitive load cannot be reduced but can only be managed by changing the content/material if the initial material was too difficult.
The second type of cognitive load is extraneous cognitive load. This is the cognitive load that is created by the way in which the material is presented. For example if a student were learning about projectile motion in Physics and had to read 1 page of typed notes with no diagrams or examples this would have a high extrinsic load. Inversely if a student was given that same page of notes chunked into paragraphs with annotated diagrams as examples that would greatly reduce the extraneous load even though the content of the material has not changed.
The final type of load is germane load. This is the cognitive load that is being utilised for learning.
The cognitive load that is imposed on the learner firstly comes from the intrinsic load and can only be managed, not reduced. Then the extraneous load occupies "takes up" cognitive load resources and should always be aimed to be reduced. The remaining cognitive load resources are then utilised by the learner to engage with, manipulate and learn the material. In this way it can be seen that germane load should be maximised.